A Kelpy Time Machine

This is x-posted from my guest post at Deep Sea News about the new Floating Forests citizen science project I’m part of. If you’re excited about it, go check out http://www.floatingforests.org/!

avatar_kelpThere’s something I’ve always wanted. Something that would take kelp forest science to a new level. Something that would let me do the kind of work that I dream about, quietly, secretly, peering into the mysteries of kelpiness.

It is something impossible.

It is a time machine.

And now I have one. But with a catch. For you, my dear friends, are its pilot.

OK, OK, first, why use a time machine as a tool of science, and not, I don’t know, to right wrongs and make the world a better place? Well, first off, temporal paradoxes, y’all. Come on. Be realistic. Has Doctor Who taught us nothing? Or decades of Star Trek? Or Primer? (seriously, see that last one, as it will hurt your brain in a good way).

But then, why, kelp? What? Hear me out.

There are so many things that we as marine biologists want to know about the state of ecosystems in the past. For many things, we hardly ever have records that are older than ten usually for just one small area. This is really problematic – especially for something like Giant Kelp.

You see, Giant Kelp (that’s Macrocystis to you!) is kind of the bad-ass of the algae world. It’s pretty damn huge – up to 60m long in some places – and grows up to a foot or two a day. It’s so damn big, we can see it from orbit1.

https://seaweedindustry.com/

Photo courtesy of the Seaweed Industry Association

It’s also everywhere – from Alaska to Baja to South Africa to much of South America to New Zealand to the sub-Antarctic islands. And, according to the Lane et al. phylogeny, it’s all one species2. It gets *around*. And wherever it is, it feeds, houses, and nourishes much of the life in the sea around it.

So, where does the time machine come in, and why are you piloting it?

Simply put – Keeeelllppp Innnnnn Spaaaace!

The Landsat family of satellites have been orbiting earth, taking photos of the whole globe twice a month since the early 1980s. Photos where we can see kelp. They are a time machine we as scientists can use to go back and see how kelp has changed over thirty years.

Can we see the near-extinction of giant kelp from Tasmania? Can we see it moving around the coast of South Africa? Has it been walking away from the warming equator? Is there more or less now than there was in the past?

OK, this sounds pretty cool. But where do you, our time-traveling pilots come in?

Basically computers suck.

OK, no, really, we love them. *pets shiny Apple laptop* BUT – they cannot tell kelp from waves or clouds in the Landsat images. My collaborators (the real remote sensing part of this team) have tried. It’s a no-go. We actually need people – kelp hunters, if you will, to peer at the millions of images of potential kelp habitat and help us discover these Floating Forests.

We need you.

Working with the Big Momma of online citizen science, Zooniverse, my collaborators from the Kelp Ecosystem Ecology Network (KEEN) and I have created an online citizen science project called Floating Forests. In it, we ask you to take a look at images. Help us cull out bad ones (they’re satellites – they take pictures cloudy cloudy rain or (often still cloudy) shine, or take pictures of more than we think.

And if you see kelp, circle it!

We'll give you images of coastline - like this July 2001 picture of Santa Cruz on the left. You circle the kelp beds, and that yields data about kelp abundances, as you can see on the right.

We’ll give you images of coastline – like this July 2001 picture of Santa Cruz on the left. You circle the kelp beds, and that yields data about kelp abundances, as you can see on the right.

It’s really quite meditative to see images of the land and see whisk by, pausing periodically to lasso a green bed of kelp.

Maybe you’ll see a wave-swept vista of Point Lobos. Maybe you’ll see the Googleplex (I did – by accident). Maybe you’ll see somewhere you’ve never dreamed of traveling, but with that big kelp bed sitting there, you know the destination of your next dive trip.

So, please, go hop into the pilot’s stick of this magical kelpy time machine. Poke around. And ask questions! We scientists are there to talk to you! What are you waiting for?

Yes, this is the entrance to a time machine.

Yes, this is the entrance to a time machine.

1.Cavanaugh, K., D. Siegel, D. Reed, and P. Dennison. 2011. Environmental controls of giant-kelp biomass in the Santa Barbara Channel, California. Marine Ecology Progress Series 429:1–17.10.3354/meps09141
2. Macaya, E. C., and G. C. Zuccarello. 2010. DNA barcoding and genetic divergence in the Giant Kelp Macrocystis (Laminariales). Journal of Phycology 46:736–742. 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2010.00845.x

The Beatles and Kelp

For a blog post somewhere else, I’m trying to re-work the Beatle’s classic Kelp!, er, I mean, Help!. But my first draft got all urchin-y. I love it, though, so I thought I’d post it here.

KELP! (from the perspective of a growing urchin)

Kelp! I need some algae.
Kelp! not just any algae
Kelp! You know I need some kelp!

When I was younger (So much younger than) so much younger than today
(I never needed) I never needed any growing kelp in any way
(Now) But now these days are gone (These days are gone), I don’t eat just diatoms
(I know I’ve found) Now I find I’ve changed my mind and opened up my jaws

Kelp me if you can, I’m hungry now
And I do appreciate kelp being ’round
Kelp is great food for me oh right now
Won’t you please, please kelp me

(Now) And now my spines have changed in oh so many ways
(My Aristotle’s lantern) My Aristotle’s lantern is big and ready to graze
(And) And every now (Every now and then) and then I feel so insecure
(I know that I) I know that I just need kelp like I’ve never needed it before

(chorus)

When I was younger (So much younger than) so much younger than today
(I never needed) I never needed any growing kelp in any way
(Now) But now these days are gone (These days are gone), I don’t eat just diatoms
(I know I’ve found) Now I find I’ve changed my mind and opened up my jaws

Kelp me if you can, I’m hungry now
And I do appreciate kelp being ’round
Kelp is great food for me oh right now
Won’t you please, please kelp me, kelp me, kelp me, ooh